Anatomy in Motion Course Review

Anatomy in Motion Course Review


Gary is also a fantastic artist. One of his sketches from class. You don’t spend the majority of your life contemplating the foot without getting good at drawing it, too, I suppose.

With every foot step, every experience of the Earth through your foot; what sensory input are you taking in? What could you be missing out on? If there is a part of your foot that never makes proper contact with the Earth, with every step, is there potential you are you not realizing?

Today marks day four of having my first metatarsal head actually connect and receive input from the Earth at the appropriate time in my gait cycle. It’s a whole new world I wouldn’t have imagined would feel so different.

I mean, it’s just a tiny piece of bone that wasn’t reacting to the ground properly. What difference could a square inch make??

A hell of a lot, apparently.

Let’s talk more about human movement and how the quality of which is critical to maintain over the course of your dance career.

This post is also a reflection on movement and dance post-Anatomy in Motion. A course that may have changed my life a little.


As a dancer I struggled constantly with the inability to control rolling to the outside of my feet. I never felt “grounded”. Balancing and turns were extremely difficult for me and my calves were always tight.

Sound familiar?

The filter through which Anatomy in Motion views and coaches back our right to experience natural human motion helped me to finally experience the full surface of my foot, something I could not before appreciate the benefits of fully.

You don’t know what you don’t know, and you can’t feel what you can’t feel.

This post will be interesting for you if:

a) You have an interest in what natural human movement really is
b) You like feet
c) You think gait analysis is sexy
d) You enjoy my long rambling stories about life, dance, and movement
e) You’ve been considering taking an AiM seminar (or have already)


We’re often told that to dance better, we need to dance more. But what if it’s not more technique we need? Consider that learning to perform natural human movement more efficiently is all you need for huge technical gains.

I’ve just completed the Anatomy in Motion immersion course: Six days (full days, 8am-6pm days…) studying human movement with Gary Ward and Chris Sritharan. I’ve experienced my own anatomy in motion, and felt what the foot can do for human performance (see what I did there??)

“Human movement is trained, human motion is not… If you’re going to engage in a sport that is not natural human motion, just make sure you have a strategy to unwind it” ~Chris Sritharan

First, I’ll get the long rambling story portion of this post out of the way. You can skip through it if you like and scroll to the “information” part, I won’t be offended.

My Anatomy in Motion journey began last year at a Neurokinetic Therapy study group in Toronto led by Dr. Brock Easter.

Brock is always on the cutting edge of movement therapies and other manual and therapeutic approaches to help his patients, and when he finds one that works for him, he enthusiastically lets everyone know about it.

This was in 2014. He had just completed the AiM course in New York and was raving about it, telling us how Gary’s book, What The Foot had changed his philosophy on movement, he was mind blown, and that we should all read it.

what’s an anconeus??

Being an idealistic, highly impressionable, idiot-trainer, still learning my calcaneus from anconeus, I tucked that bit of information into my back pocket for future processing.

At another NKT study group, while I and my knee pain were subject of investigation, Brock started messing around with my feet and wondering how the hell I was even able to walk on them.

Curious about what was driving his new foot obsession, I decided to book an appointment with Brock to talk about feet and AiM.

He watched me walk, told me my center of mass was shifted completely over one leg, shoved some wedges under my feet and got me to perform some weird lunge-type movements (which I now know to be “shift” phase of the flow motion model).


Here is our amazing class learning to shift

So began my dedicated quest for understanding and experiencing my body.

This is important. From that point I set an intention to establish a daily movement practice. It wasn’t perfect, but did it ever create an impact on my system.

It wasn’t because the exercises themselves helped me overcome my pain and challenges, it was my intention to commit myself to working on them daily.

What if you dedicated yourself to work on something every day for a year? 

Over the course of the next year, I saw Brock twice more (both sessions combining acupuncture and integrating “shift” back into my gait cycle). The changes I experienced were ridiculous (but note I was also experimenting with DNS, breathing techniques, and generally trying to stress less).

Huge movement nerd that I am, I practiced “shift” every day.  I made a commitment to work on it every day, and have been doing so since he taught it to me last winter. I only missed a few days of shift-practice, and these days were noticeably stiffer, lower energy, more frustrating.

My ability to perform “shift” became the gauge of my state of movement. Everyday I learned a little more from it. There were frustrations, and there were highs.

Dance became a safe activity again. I began to feel things in my body I’d never felt before. I felt elements of my dancing improve. I felt pain subside. I could point my feet better, back-bend without compression pain, balance better, and was turning well(ish) and more consistently for the first time in years.

Monika dance

Look ma! No back pain!

Then I started teaching this movement to my clients (which has been referred to fondly- or dreadfully- as the “twisty lunge”).

I saw that it helped one dancer improve her hip external rotation from about 20 degrees to 80 (dat turnout!). Another dancer expressed how after practicing the movement, she felt lighter on her feet and felt more space in her hips. I noticed that after performing the movement, another dancer I worked with was no longer collapsing into an everted foot while performing a lunge.

Then I finally got around to reading Gary’s book, What The Foot. It was a huge inspiration for the creation of Dance Stronger (and those who are enrolled in the current DS program will notice I included my “shift” obsession in the movement preparation as AiM lunges 1 through 4- my breakdown of the shift phase. I didn’t do it justice, and in the second edition I’m hoping to improve upon its instruction, now that I actually know what I’m doing… Sortof)

Of course, I wish everyone would read What The Foot. After reading it there is no gray area: You either believe in his philosophy or you don’t.

You better believe  I followed his guidance and experimented with “dark zones” like intentionally pronating my feet, taking my knees inside my second toe into the forbidden land of valgus. I stopped using so many “stability” exercises. Let go of an element of control. And it felt good! I encourage you to experiment with the same.

Knee valgus isn’t bad! You only get one chance to do it in the gait cycle.

But not everyone is as open as me. Why? For some people I imagine it comes down to money.

A chiropractor taking the course told us that since he started using AiM in his practice, his profit from orthotics decreased by about $25 000. That’s a pretty huge financial hit to take. But if you can teach people to support their feet, create their own orthotics through natural human movement, you don’t need to give them expensive orthotics or send them for surgeries.

Do you really need an orthotic to support that everted foot? Or do you need to learn how to support it through your own musculoskeletal reaction?

For me, the decision was easy. I couldn’t read Gary’s book and NOT take his course.

His marketing is actually very clever-His book creates an irresistible information gap while simultaneously filtering out the non-believers who he doesn’t want to taking his course anyway. Well done, Mr. Ward. Well done.

Information gap: “When we come across something new that is not explained by our previous knowledge or experiences, an information gap is formed, and we have a desire to find the answer.”

~Dr. George Lowenstien

So having now experienced his six day seminar, I feel like I’ve received answers to the questions I didn’t know how to ask, like,

“what’s a talus?”

“what’s the difference between a pronated foot and an everted foot?”

“at what phase in the gait cycle does the right hip adduct and anteriorally tilt?”

“what does the big toes have in common with the C spine?”.

I can see in a new way the shapes the human body makes for which I have a map to interpret, called the Flow Motion Model.

I understand that the body has an incredible ability to heal itself in just one rep.

I learned the natural way the pelvis, ribcage, skull, forefoot, rearfoot, and all the body’s joints are meant to act together in movement, and see how dance has a way of unravelling our movement quality if left unchecked.

But more importantly, I felt it all in my system in the 6 days. This is why I feel experiential learning is so important. If you can’t feel it, do you really know it? That’s the difference between knowing something in theory, and really knowing it.

By the end of day 5 it felt like I was wearing someone else’s shoes. Like someone had stealthily slipped in arch-supporting orthotics while I wasn’t looking.

I can see now that people really CAN create their own orthotics through movement. Give the body a new experience that helps it to move more naturally and efficiently, and it will choose to keep that new way of moving.

Like upgrading to a new operating system.


So what were some of the main take-aways from my AiM experience that you can use?

1) Dance is NOT natural human movement.

As Chris advises, if we’re going to do something unnatural with our bodies, like dance, we had better have a strategy to unwind it.

Some unnatural things we do as dancers (meaning, movements we’re trained to do that do that look really cool, but do not naturally occur in our gait cycle):

  • Winging the foot
  • Pulling up the arches standing turned-out
  • Extending and flexing the whole spine segmentally
  • Not using heel strike
  • Chest (paradoxical) breathing
  • That horrible foot stretcher thing

Your foot does NOT do this in the human gait cycle! What are you doing to balance this out?

Not that these are “bad” ways of moving, but that they are trained through dance. They don’t naturally occur in human gait. If we don’t know how to get out of these patterns of moving, we lose efficiency, technique suffers, and maybe stuff starts to hurt.

2) The body is primarily a closed chain system, connected to the ground through out feet (or hands, or heads, or whatever else we decide to ambulate with).

Why would you train to improve foot mechanics with open-chain theraband exercises knowing that your feet were designed to respond to gravity bearing down on them and the earth beneath them?

Stop with the banded ankle strengthening exercises.

You must question WHY are you doing these exercises? If you can’t justify their value are they worth spending time on?

3) If you’re struggling at a specific skill, consider that you may not need extra coaching, but to master basic body mechanics.

Similar to what Gray Cook expresses in his book Movement. Is it a performance issue, or a movement issue?

4) In the gait cycle you only get one chance to pronate your foot, and one chance to anteriorally tilt your pelvis. And it all happens in less than a second.

This hit home for me. We often perceive pronation and anterior tilt as “bad” and we’re told to pull up our arches, tuck our butts under, and try not to look so weird while we’re doing it.

But when you flip that story, and realize that it is a privilege to pronate and anterior tilt, that they only happen in 1 of 5 phases in the gait cycle, you see how precious they are. You don’t (and should not) need to avoid them, or feel bad for doing them, but earn back the right to use them, and learn the when, where and how these movement fit into human motion.

5) We can’t rely on other people to “fix” us, but the best therapists and trainers will give us tools so that we can fix ourselves.

It’s the only way, and the sooner you take ownership of your body, the sooner you can get on with life, improve your performance, and let go of chronic pain.

As therapists and trainers, we aren’t trying to give our clients and patients a “fix” for their pain, but create an experience for them to safely work through their challenges and feel that their body is incredibly hardwired for self-healing.

Commit to a daily practice that moves you a new direction.

6) A valgus knee is not an internally rotated knee that needs to be pushed out.

7) There is a scoliotic phase in the gait cycle. Even scoliosis is a natural human movement. You don’t need to judge a scoliotic curve as being bad, but it can become problematic to get stuck in it.

Don’t get attached to your structure. Wendy Whelan, a beautiful ballerina, has a scoliotic curve, but she’s learned how to work with it, not feel bad about it.

8) There is a difference between tension-based and compression-based pain.

Some pain exists because a muscle is too long and under tension (and feels pretty dang tight). Some pain is because of compression- A muscle too short. If you try to stretch tension-based pain, you’re asking for trouble.

It feels tight because it IS tight. Stretched taught. And you want to stretch it more? Good luck with that.

9) The sub-talar joint drives the bus.

You are the bus. Your STJ is the driver. If your talus is stuck in an inversion or eversion, you better believe your whole body will sort itself out above it in cheeky compensatory ways.

10) The toes are the “last line of defense”.

When your body is struggling with something and can’t figure it out, your toes will help you not to fall over. Got bunions and weird looking toes? Consider what might they have adapted to help you with?

My pinky toes have a clever way of making up for my inability to evert my forefoot. Thank goodness for my pinkies keeping me on my feet all these years!

11) You don’t need muscular effort to pronate.

The shape of the calcaneus is such that gravity pronates our foot effortlessly. Again, you DON’T need to do millions of banded pronation exercises to get a nice “winged” looking foot by strengthening the peroneals.

Image result for winged foot ballet

A winged foot can create a beautiful line, but what’s the price?

12) “Center is the Holy Grail”. We can keep striving to reach it, but like the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow, we may never reach it. Like our chase for perfection in dance. We know we’ll never have it, but that doesn’t stop us from trying, and gives us something meaningful to work towards.

13) Dancers tend to adapt their bodies on top of their feet. While we were out for beers as a group one night, I asked Gary if there were any common things he noticed when he worked with dancers. Other than treating them as individuals on a case-by-case basis, he also said that he commonly sees that their feet aren’t compensating, but have adapted for dance, and that their bodies tend to adapt to what the feet have to do.

Something to consider before mobilizing or treating something that doesn’t need it. What’s adapted to what? What can be taught to move differently, and what needs to be shown how manually?

14) The abdomen is like the plantar fascia of the torso.

I was mind-blown by correlations we were shown between the different parts of the foot and the spine. There are 33 joints in the foot, and 33 joints in the spine.

The big toe and the cervical spine, for example have a functional connection. And in reflexology, the plantar surface of the foot is connected to various organs and structures. To feel these connections through the AiM movements and in the gait cycle was fascinating. Another thing you can’t truly say you know until you feel it in your own system.

15) If you’re having trouble accessing a movement, consider that it could be because you’re already stuck in it as a static posture.

Maybe you never get to a particular range of motion because you live there already. I was having trouble extending properly through my T spine not because I was stuck in flexion, but because I was already extendED! (something I’ve already written about HERE) That was a surprise for me. I imagine this is common for dancers, and is something I’ll keep looking out for, although there are no rules.

AiM has shown me some valuable exercises and ways of looking at movement that I am very excited explore and share with you. Thie philosophy of observing and working with human movement, gait, and feet will surely influence my writing, my training, and the next edition of Dance Stronger.

Hugely grateful to have been a part of this course. I will never look at a human body in the same way again. And I may just have developed a new, further, obsession with feet.

Thank you Gary and Chris for opening my mind (and sub-talar joint) and helping me to experience the world with a new set of feet

Oh and PS I met a DTP reader on the course and it was so cool! Shout-out to STEVE FROM ALBERTA! It was great to meet you 🙂 Cool to know another member of the DTP community that I can throw around AiM ideas with. If you’re a dancer in Edmonton(?) and want to see someone to help you improve your movement, combining AiM concepts, Pilates, and NKT, go see Steve. (If you’re reading this, Steve, please put your contact info in the comments!).




Optimizing Thoracic Spine Function in Dancers

Optimizing Thoracic Spine Function in Dancers

I confess that for the past few years I’ve been doing something wrong.

Not wrong in such a way that I’ve been harming anyone, but I certainly wasn’t being as effective as I could have been, and rather than pretend like I’m brilliant 100% of the time, I’d like to use this blog post to rectify my past mistakes.


Ohhhh man what was I thinking spending so much time on thoracic spine extension drills??

It was an honest mistake, what with all the talk that “everyone needs more T spine extension, you can never have enough”. That was what I was taught a few years ago, after all, before I learned any different. Can you blame me?

I used to assume that all dancers needed more thoracic spine extension, and that was wrong.

Optimizing thoracic spine function in dancers isn’t just about increasing thoracic extension.

Just because the majority of the human population probably does need more T spine extension from spending most of their waking hours seated, does that mean I should assume the same of the dance population? Nope. Dancers, in fact, spend the majority of their time extending their spines, not sitting flexed, and can get stuck in T spine extension.

To boot, the T spine is supposed to be flexed. Relatively. Too much flexion is detrimental, but a “neutral” T spine sits flexed, slightly kyphotic, like the picture below.
To quote physical therapist Eric Schoenberg,

“The sagittal alignment of the thoracic spine is kyphotic: 40 degrees in adults. (Neumann D.A. 2002).  With that said, we are not really talking about the T-spine being “extended”, but instead are talking about the relative amount of flexion that an athlete is in.  With that description, it’s important to appreciate that T-spine extension drills are working to put an athlete into an acceptable amount of flexion!  It is this flexion (or convexity) that provides a surface for the concave, ventral surface of the scapula to “float” on and create the scapulothoracic joint. “

Hear that? Thoracic spine movility drills are actually about optimizing flexion, not necessarily increasing extension.

If you’re familiar with the joint-by-joint approach, we are taught that different segments of the body tend to need either more mobility or stability:

Joint — Primary Need

Ankle — Mobility (sagittal)

Knee — Stability

Hip — Mobility (multi-planar)

Lumbar Spine — Stability

**Thoracic Spine — Mobility**

Scapula — Stability

Gleno-humeral — Mobility


This is well and good, but is it not also possible that a joint can become so mobile in one direction that it gets stuck there? In the case of the T spine, if you spend most of life extending it, it might need help getting back to a reasonable degree of flexion.

I don’t have enough T spine flexion. Some of my dance clients also lack T spine flexion. Are you one of us??

It is common for dancers to have a hard time differentiating better lumbar and T spine extension. Before I would assume that it was because they just needed more T spine extension, and the issue would correct itself. I know now that it’s not that simple.

What if your T spine is already so extended that it can’t move any more, and the only option is to get that movement from somewhere else, like the lumbar spine?

So that said, I want to share with you some of the things I’ve changed about how I work with dancers on T-spine function. Now that I probably know what I’m doing. Kindof. Better than 2 years ago anyway.

 Considerations for improving T spine function in dancers:

1. Assess whether it’s actually a T-spine extension limitation, or an anterior core stability issue.

If you’re not assessing, you’re guessing. If it rhymes it must be true.

If you’re just assuming a dancer needs more T spine mobility, worst case you might be hurting them, medium case you’re wasting both of your time, and best case you might have actually helped with something.

That’s 1/3 odds. I’d rather assess.

Most dancers spend life in extension (photo above). Being stuck in extension, with a lengthening of the anterior core can make it difficult to keep them abs engaged when they need to be. A stable core keeps the T spine anchored down, allowing it to extend to it’s max.

To assess this, looks at T spine extension on the floor vs. standing.

If while on the floor, no gravity to fight, T spine extension is fine, but while standing it suffers, then it’s likely to be more related to core stability than an actual lack of T spine extension.

Try this: Perform first a lumbar locked thoracic extension rotation exercise, like below:

Next, perform a standing multisegmental extension, or backbend, like so:

Is her T spine extending? Nope. Check out all that movement at the TL junction though…

If you can extend your t spine on the floor, but not standing up, you might have a core stability issue, not an actual lack of T spine extension.

All the T spine mobility drills in the world won’t help her backbend improve, it might just make things worse, adding mobility where it isn’t needed.

2. Differentiate between a need for thoracic flexion and extension.

These days I’m not doing as many T spine extension drills because dancers are so good at extending through their T spine that they need a little bit of flexion. Yes. Sometimes you need to work on T spine flexion to bring them back to an acceptable neutral.

Remember the core pendulum theory popularized by Charlie Weingroff: A joint functions best when it is centrated, not when it’s stuck in the extreme of one range of motion. If the T spine is stuck off center, in extension, how can you expect it to extend more?

I’m sorry if I’m making posture that much more complicated for you.

Here is one example of a hypokyphotic T spine (needing more flexion):

originally from


In dance the emphasis is always on extending MORE.

Another sign that you might need to get a bit more T spine flexion is the position of the shoulder blades.

The photo below is a client of mine:

Check out that right scapula. Now, she had a few subluxations that she forgot to tell me about, and there are a few other things affecting her scapula position, but lacking T spine  flexion can also create this look. The scapula might be in an ok position, but the T spine may be so extended that the scapula appears to poke out.

It’s easy to confuse this look with hyperkyphosis, but it’s really just the shoulder blade poking out.

TO help correct this, did we do T spine extension drills? Hell no. In conjunction with scapular movement mechanics we also worked on T spine flexion, breathing, and neck alignment. One of the strategies we used was actually coaching her downward dog to get a bit more T spine flexion.

It seemed to help:

Bam. Scapula sitting nicely on the ribcage and T spine.

You can also check out T spine flexion in a standing forward bend. Below you’ll see how her upper back doesn’t flex. Neither does a huge portion of her lower back… A little flexion deficient this one is:

Working on T spine extension drills probably won’t be helpful for her, either.

In many cases, lack of T spine flexion goes hand in hand with poor diaphragm function and rib flare, so working on proper breathing mechanics is hugely helpful.

3. I’m looking more at rotational asymmetries than saggital plane extension.

Most dancers have a strong bias to stand on their left leg and rotate (turn) to the right, in a pirouette or fouette turn for example,  which can lead to range of motion or motor control issues with rotating in one direction.

A dance client I’m working with right now has this issue. She has tons of active T spine rotation in one direction, but in the other probably about 50% as much. Passively, she’s got more than enough in both ways, but the motor control is a bit screwy and asymmetrical.

Rotational stability for dancers is a huge deal and is something you should be looking at due to the nature of the art form. DOn’t limit yourself to looking only at saggital plane extension (forward and back bending)

My preferred way to look at T spine rotation is to look at soft rolling patterns in conjunction with NeuroKinetic Therapy rotation assessments, like this:

It’s magical when you find a quad overworking and screwing up a rotational pattern and then seeing how that can help a dancer improve their balance and turns.

Do I sometimes still do T spine extension drills? For sure, but a lot more rarely than I need to work on core stability, T spine flexion, and asymmetries in rotation and control.

So I guess to sum up what you should take away is to get assessed, don’t just guess that you need more T spine extension, because you might actually need to opposite.